All posts by admin

business calls in English

Business Calls in English: 8 Tips for Mastering the Art of Telephoning in English with a Business purpose

Business Calls in English: 8 Tips for Mastering the Art of Telephoning in English with a Business purpose


Business calls in English can run the gamut from routine to very serious from friendly to hostile.  How you handle a business call will obviously depend on who, what, where, when and why you are communicating with the other person or persons.

Under normal circumstances, when people make business calls in English (or any other language, really)  it is usually to:

  1. confirm
  2. clarify
  3. inquire
  4. discover
  5. verify
  6. participate
  7. explain
  8. facilitate
  9. negotiate
  10. plan
  11. collaborate
  12. dispute

Depending on the reason for your call, your tone and actual words of communication will differ. Obviously, for instance, you would speak differently if you are “disputing” than if you are “collaborating.” And so forth.

If your English skills are below fluent and you have an important business telephone call to make, consider practicing or rehearing the call beforehand or role play with a friend or colleague whose English is better than yours.

This post is based on busines calls that lean more towards the friendly side than to the hostile side. While it does not cover every possible contingency, the goal is to give you at least a basic primer for making business calls in English.

8 Tips for Making Business Calls in English that Make the Professional Grade

  1. At the start of the call, identify yourself by name and if appropriate, by company, or the department in which you work.

For example, “Hello, this is John Smith with Merrill Lynch. I am calling from the asset management department. May I speak with Allain Duroc, Please? I need confirmation that the Lagos conference has been cancelled.”

2. Get familiar with modal verbs because it is impossible to have a business telephone conversation without them. (Obviously, you need to work on this long before you even make the call.)


  • May I speak with your supervisor, please?
  • Would you mind re-sending the fax? We were unable to read the last few lines.
  • Would that be all the information you need? Is there anything I can clarify further?
  • Can I help you with anything else? Keep in mind that the company never agreed to participate in this survey so my authority to give you more information is limited.
  • Should I include that report in the presentation? Do you think this would help to better explain the findings?
  • When will you arrive in Brussels? Should I make reservations for dinner?
  • Could you repeat that? I don’t know if I fully understood your line of reasoning.
  • Who was supposed to handle this client’s account? Because I’m afraid this person will be fired.
  • Where might I find the stock accounts in the file, do you know?

3. Review auxiliary verbs DO, BE and HAVE as these verbs are vital to business telephone conversations (obviously, you would need to do this long before you need to be making the business calls in English!)

Examples with BE (3 tenses)

  • I am delighted to speak with you finally after such a long time emailing each other.
  • I was in New York on business and apologize that I missed the meeting yesterday.
  • I will not be in the office next week so I would need to reschedule the conference call.

Examples with DO

  • I do believe I received your last email but I don’t remember if you answered this specific question.
  • Do you agree that this contract is one sided?
  • I don’t think Ariane is the right person for this assignment. We should send Paul instead.

Examples with HAVE

  • Hello Roman, this is Mike Dubke, do you have a minute for a quick discussion about the powerpoint?
  • Hello Janice, I am calling because I just realized you have not sent in your timesheets.
  • Have you got the updated files on a disk?

4. Review WH words (who, what, where, when, how) as these words are integral to conversation including Business calls in English.


  • Who might I say is calling?
  • What can I do for you?
  • Where are you calling from exactly?
  • When would be a good time to follow up with another phone call?
  • How can I help you?

Business calls in English

5. If you need the call to remain short and brief, ask closed ended questions (so that you can get a “yes” or “no” response); or say something like:

  •  “I received the latest figures. I can get this back to you on Friday. Would this work for you?”
  • “Hi John, I am calling to have a quick word on the new contract negotiations but I would like to keep it brief due to a meeting. Can you please clarify clause 5 on the second page?”



6. If you need to transfer the call:

  • Tell the person you will transfer him or her.
  • Give the person the extension number to which they are being transferred as well as the person they are being transferred to.
  • Alert the person receiving the transfer who is on the line and why they are being transferred.

7. Watch your manners and etiquette

For example:

  • Smile when possible as it can be heard in your voice
  • Say please, thank you, good morning, good evening, etc., when appropriate
  • Don’t yell and scream
  • Apologize when necessary
  • remain calm and classy
  • Don’t eat and chew gum
  • Use language and tone appropriate to the conversation
  • Turn off other interruptions such as cellphones, pagers, music and other devices
  • Avoid putting the person on hold to talk with colleagues.
  • Listen without interrupting

8. End the call in a professional manner

For example:

  • “Thank you for calling, have a good day.”
  • Thank you for you time this was very helpful.”
  • OK that sounds good. What is the best way to reach you if I have further questions?
  • It was good to speak with you, I will let the boss know that you called.
  • It is going to be great to collaborate with you on this project. Shall we talk tomorrow as scheduled just to finalize everything?
  • It’s confirmed. Thank you, goodnight.
  • I will verify that and get back to you ASAP. Take care, goodbye.
  • Ok Great, let’s talk again soon.
  • OK, I’ve got to run. Thank you for your assistance. Have a good day. Bye.
  • Have a nice day!

NEXT: Business English Role Play for Negotiation


image credit

image credit

For, Since, During, While: What is the Difference Between These English Puppies? + QUIZ

Use “For” when:

You are talking about a duration of time that is non-specific. For example:

“I lived there for five years.” In this sentence, the speaker does not specify which five years he or she is talking about. Is it from 2001 – 2006? Is it five years during his or her teens? Was it a five year period ten years ago?

Consider this other sentence: “The meeting lasted for six minutes.”

Again, the speaker does not give a specific time frame, only a duration.  The listener does not know specifically when those six minutes began and ended.

For, Since, During, While
When do I use “For” “During” “Since” or “While”???

You use “since” when you:

Want to specify the time frame that something started or began. That thing is likely still continuing in the present time.  Note that “since” is often used with the present perfect and present continuous tenses. Remember that in English, the present perfect tense/present perfect continuous is used to talk about something that started in the past but has a connection to the present. However, also note that since can be used in other contexts/tenses as well. Since can be either a conjunction, adverb or preposition in English. As Tiphaine Borredon would say, “it’s complication!”

Read the examples below. Note that in each example, the action began at a time in the past but it is understood that the action continues to the moment the speaker is speaking:

  • Since when have you been jogging at midnight? (adverb)
  • I have been jogging at midnight since last year. (preposition)
  • I have despised broccoli since I was a child.  (preposition)
  • Since you have refused to remove your car from the parking spot for disabled people, I have no choice but to call the police. (conjunction)
  • I have taken French lessons since the age of eighteen. (preposition)

You use “during” when you:

Are referring to a specific period of time that has a specific beginning point and a specific ending point. During is a preposition and is usually followed by a noun or a noun clause in English.

So for example:

“I will go sightseeing during my vacation.” In this sentence the speaker (and probably the listener) knows exactly when the vacation will begin and end.


  • “I cry during sad movies.”
  • “I learned to cheat on tests during college.”
  • During the summer, I often go to Bretagne to visit my grandmother.
  • Are you free during lunch?
  • I have observed that during fire drills Peter goes into an asthma attack.
  • Come on, let’s go! You can eat during the car ride.
  • You will have a chance to see the Great Wall during the tour tomorrow.

You use “while” when you:

Talk about two actions that occur during the same span of time.  The two actions may be unrelated but they occur or will occur in the same time frame.  This use of while is as a conjunction. But “while” has many uses in English. It can be a conjunction, adverb, noun, verb or even sometimes a preposition! (Tiphaine! Complication!)


  • While you take a nap, I will cook dinner. (conjunction)
  • You can go for a walk while she is being interviewed. (conjunction)
  • Did you pass out while all of this was going on? (conjunction)
  • While John is prone to outbursts, Jason his twin brother is very calm. (conjunction)
  • My college years were a time for me to while away my youth (verb)
  • The hour while you wait for the doctor to update you is the hardest part of this medical procedure (adverb)
  • We can sit here for a while. (noun)

Note that “while” and “during” can often be used in the same sense but the structure of your sentence would change. For example:

  • While you take a nap, I will cook dinner.
  • During your nap, I will cook dinner.
  • You can go for a walk while she is being interviewed
  • You can go for a walk during her interview.
  • Did you  pass out while all of this was going on?
  • Did you pass out during all of this?



Read more on Since, While, For and During here.

Image credit


Business Lunch English: All the Common Phrases for Invitation, Small Talk, Starting Conversations, Ending the Lunch

Let’s talk Business Lunch English

Business Lunch English
What is your favorite cuisine?

Business Lunch English is the type of English you speak at a business lunch. Obvious, right? So, imagine you have a power business lunch scheduled with a business colleague, business partner or potential business partner.  Whether you are the host or the guest, if your first language is not English you are bound to be a little bit nervous. There is no need to be. In many ways, meeting for a business lunch is easier than, say, taking a conference call in English when you are not face to face with the person.

In this post, you will find a lot of helpful phrases for inviting someone to the meal, conversations during lunch, and follow up emails. Keep in mind that these  are the bare minimum. There are innumerable ways to discuss business over lunch in English.

If you are the one to invite the person to lunch, be sure to ensure that the restaurant you choose – if you choose the restaurant – is appropriate to the occasion. You don’t want a place that is too packed or too loud if you intend to have an actual conversation during the lunch or dinner.

In some circumstances, it may be appropriate to make it clear if you will be paying. Say “it’s my treat.” If you don’t intend to pay, then just don’t say anything. You would never say to the person “you will have to pay for yourself,” as this is obviously rude.

Another thing to do just to be on the safe side is find out if the person has any preferences for the lunch or any allergies and things like that because the last thing you need is to schedule a business lunch where the person can’t eat because they are allergic or because they hate the cuisine you picked.

Business Lunch English
What are you going to have?

The key to a successful business lunch is to relax, enjoy your guest and your meal and throw in a little business with the pleasure. It is literally the one time when mixing business and pleasure is expected and allowed. However, one caveat: It probably is not a good idea to have alcohol during lunch unless you are very sure that you can handle your liquor with class and finesse at that time of the day. Even so, it is usually better not to drink at lunchtime and especially not during a business lunch.



  • Are you free Friday around lunchtime for lunch?
  • Would you like to have lunch next Tuesday to discuss this?
  • Any plans for lunch tomorrow? Would you like to meet?
  • I will be in your neck of the woods next week and wondered if you would like to join me for lunch?
  • Let’s make a lunch date.
  • Let’s do lunch soon. When are you free?
  • Would you like to grab a salad with me tomorrow around lunchtime?
  • Let’s have lunch!
  • We need to get together over lunch and hash this out. Are you free this Thursday?
  • There’s a great Italian restaurant near my office would you like to join me for lunch there sometime?



  • Are there any types of food or cuisine you absolutely don’t want to eat?
  • Do you have any preferences as far as cuisine?
  • Is there a particular place you would like to go?
  • Would you like me to pick the place or shall we play it by ear?
  • Are there any types of food that you are allergic to or anything like that
  • Would you care to try the new Trinidadian restaurant that just opened up?
  • What do you like to eat?
  • Would you like to pick the restaurant?
  • Any particular place you would like to go?
  • Are you vegan or vegetarian or anything like that?


When you talk to a wait person in a restaurant, you will be using a lot of modal verbs such as “may” “could” “should”  “would”  “will” and “going to”

You might say TO THE WAITER:
  • May I have another glass of water?
  • Could I have another fork, please?
  • Would you please point me to the restroom?
  • I will have the grilled steak.
  • I think I’m going to pass on dessert. But I would like some coffee please.

    Business lunch English
    Would you like some coffee?
  • I would like another glass of wine, please (although, as noted previously, drinking during your business lunch is probably best avoided.)
You might say to your lunch partner (or they to you)
  • What are you going to have?
  • May I ask you to explain what this is?
  • Do you think I should order the beet salad?
  • Will we have time for dessert?
  • Could you pass the salt, please

Business Lunch English Conversation and small talk


  • Your English is quite excellent, where is the accent from?
  • Is the weather any better in your neck of the woods than what we have going on here?
  • Anything good planned for the weekend?
  • Did you watch the football game last night?
  • Have you seen the latest exhibit at the Tate?
  • How are you adjusting in this new city? Do you miss home?
  • Is this your first time in New York?
  • How do you like Chennai?
  • Why did you decide to become an art dealer?


  • So how long have you actually been with the company?
  • How much decision-making authority do you actually have in this company?
  • Tell me more about this proposal you and I have been discussing. Sell me on the idea.
  • What do you think would be the greatest challenge as far as getting this project to completion?
  • How far along are you as far as getting the necessary financing?
  • What are the next steps?


  • Wow, look at the time! I really must be heading back to the office now.
  • This was lovely, we should try to do this again soon.
  • Thanks for a very pleasant meal but I have to get going.
  • I’m sorry but I’ve got to bolt, I have a meeting in half hour back at the firm. I hope you don’t mind?
  • It’s time to head back to the office, I’m afraid. But this was really nice.

So, these Business Lunch English phrases are just a few of the ones you can use to invite someone to lunch or to converse with someone and have small talk over lunch (or dinner).  Remember the list here is not exhaustive. It is not meant to be a script. The key is to act naturally and to be attentive to your guest and to enjoy  your meal while remaining professional.

Don’t forget to send a follow up email after. It can be the same day or a few days later but not more than seven days later. Some key phrases you could use:

  • It was a pleasure to have met you on Friday for lunch
  • I think we had a very constructive discussion over lunch yesterday and I would very much like to follow up with a meeting with my boss next week.
  • Glad we finally had a chance to meet and talk. We should do that again soon.
  • I hope you enjoyed our lunch as much as I did. You have shed a lot of light on a few things for me and I really do appreciate it immensely.


Image: bowl

Image: Coffee

Image: man and woman in London



NEXT: Business English Role Play for Negotiation


Contact us to schedule Business Lunch English role play by Skype, Facetime or WhatsApp. 2 hour minimum.



They're or There?

THEY’RE or THERE? OR THEIR? Even for native English speakers, it can sometimes be difficult to choose between these three words. What is the difference between these three words (homophones) which are pronounced exactly the same?  When speaking, there is no difference and no need to worry but when writing you definitely want to choose the right one because there is a huge difference between them.

“Their” is a possessive adjective that signifies ownership, belonging or association. It is usually followed by a noun. For example:

  • Their house
  • Their children
  • Their car
  • Their mistake
  • Their thoughts

“There” is an adverb of place or it can be a pronoun depending on how it is used in the sentence For example as a pronoun:

  • There is a book on the table
  • There are plenty left
  • There can’t be this many obstructionists in this organization!
  • There must be a way

As for usage of “there” as an adverb often when speaking about a location or place:

  • I will not go there.
  • The forest is over there
  • Put it there
  • Take the road through there

Finally, “they’re” is a contraction or shortened form of “they are.” Examples of its usage are:

  • I am not sure if they’re coming
  • They’re late again
  • They’re an item
  • They’re two of the highest mountains in the world.
  • Do you know if they’re the right ones?

Are you ready to quiz yourself on THEY’RE or THERE or THEIR?




Many Business English students have asked for business English role play exercises. This business English role play is the first of many to come.  It involves a negotiation between two business men in the Emirates.

Imagine that Mr Smith is an American businessman who has arrived in Abu Dhabi to meet with Mr Khan who heads an oil and gas company in the Middle East.  The two gentlemen will be discussing a deal to build a pipeline in Subsaharan Africa to drill for oil. Get a partner and role play this discussion.

For an example of the type of discussion you could have, see below:



Mr Khan: So did you find your way here okay without any problems?

Mr Smith: Yes. It was a smooth taxi ride from my hotel. No complaints whatsoever, Mr Khan. Thank you for asking.

Mr Khan: Good. Are you enjoying the weather? Too hot for you? Just right?

Mr Smith: Oh, splendid.  I am sun and sea type of a guy myself born and raised in Corpus Christie. I enjoy the outdoors, this is definitely my kind of weather.

Mr Khan: Oh good. Sometimes Westerners find our climate a bit too hot. Good to know you can handle it. So let’s cut to the chase, shall we. So as you know we are close to closing a deal with the government of Eritrea to build a new pipeline in the north of the country that will allow us to drill hundreds of tons of crude oil without too much environmental impact. It’s expected to be a bonanza and everybody wants in on this deal. We’ve got some Chinese partners who are interested in partnering up on this and as a matter of fact we are scheduled to meet today.  We are pretty close to a deal. But we wanted to talk with you guys first before we talk with them. Are you ready to make a deal?

Mr Smith: Yes indeed.

Mr Khan: We are looking for an initial investment of USD $200 MILLION in cash wired to our account in Dubai at Emirates bank within 24 hours of closing on the deal.

Mr Smith: We are very interested in making a deal. We’ve done all the due diligence and it looks like a solid project, it does check all the boxes for us but of course it will depend on the final terms. We would like a minimum of 45 percent stake in order for this to make sense for us.

Mr Khan: 45 percent? That is totally out of the question. The maximum we can offer you is 25 percent.

Mr Smith: There seems to be some kind of mistake. Clearly 25 percent is way below what you are authorized to offer and what I am authorized to accept.

Mr Khan:  Thirty percent then. That is our best and final offer, take it or leave it.

Mr Smith: Excuse me, Mr Khan but my understanding from my superiors is that the final decision for this project rests with Mr Karim Nadel Al Khomeni. And Mr Nadel just this morning before I arrived at your office personally assured me that a 45 percent stake was within the realm of possibility for this project. Now, I know Mr Nadel is currently in Qatar and cannot personally attend this meeting in person-

Mr Khan: I’m sorry, excuse me, Mr Smith. You spoke with Mr Nadel this morning from his home in Qatar and he informed you that a 45 percent stake in this project was possible?

Mr Smith: yes, indeed.

Mr Khan: This is news to me, Sir. I am afraid I will have to speak with Mr Nadel before further talks on this matter.

Mr Smith: I’ve got his contact details we can call him now and put him on speaker phone I am sure he won’t mind.

Mr Khan: No, no, no, no, no. I don’t think that would be a good idea. I would need to speak with Mr Nadel privately and get back to you on this matter. Would you mind if we postpone further discussions till tomorrow?

Mr Smith: Well, I suppose not however I was in fact scheduled to fly back to Texas tomorrow evening. I guess I can always cancel the flight if need be.

Mr Khan: Thank you for your understanding, Mr Smith and do excuse this confusion.

Mr Smith: Of course it’s no problem. Shall we reconvene tomorrow then?

Mr Khan: Yes, tomorrow.

Both men get to their feet and shake hands.



Now it is your turn to act out your own business English role play. You do not have to use the same approach you can be totally creative and original. Have fun with it and focus on having a “natural” dialogue.


NEXT: Welcoming a visitor in English to your country

AFTER: Business Lunch English


10 Resources to Help You Improve Your English Pronunciation

Improve Your English Pronunciation Now!


Improve your English pronunciation with these resources and techniques:

The best and most effective way to improve your English pronunciation is to use your ears. That’s right. Listening well is the key to improving your English pronunciation. But who should you listen to? It depends on your goals. If your goal is to improve your pronunciation so that you sound like a native English person from the UK, you need to listen to native English person from the UK. If your goal is to improve your English pronunciation so you sound more like your teacher,  (whatever his or her English accent may be) then by all means you have to spend more time listening to your teacher. If you want an American accent, then listen to Americans. The idea is that you have to spend time listening to the speakers you would like to sound like.

In addition to listening, if you want to improve your English pronunciation, you also have to practice actually speaking and hearing yourself speak so it is a good idea to read aloud to yourself and tape record yourself as you speak. Keep in mind that good pronunciation will always mean speaking with clarity so that the listener understands perfectly what you say. No point in having the cutest accent in the world if you are not understood. Good pronunciation means that you are understood.

To avoid a gobbled sound when you speak, practice speaking as slowly as you can without being ridiculous. In other words, there is slow and then there is ridiculous. Avoid the latter.

You may want to invest some time watching videos on English pronunciation such as the INTERNATIONAL PHONETIC ALPHABET which gives you the rules for English pronunciation.

Below are 10 resources  ONLINE ARTICLES, PODCASTS, APPS, POEM and VIDEOS that should go a long way towards helping you improve your English pronunciation:

  1. Poem: The Chaos by Gerard Nolste Trenité
  2. Article: How to Improve your English Pronunciation in 8 Steps
  3. Article: The Sound of English: Tim’s Pronunciation Workshop – BBC Learning English
  4. Article: 8 Tongue Twisters to Improve English Pronunciation
  5. Article: English pronunciation practice for Arabic learners
  6. Podcast: English pronunciation podcasts
  7. App: Google Android English pronunciation app
  8. App: English Practice App – Engvarta
  9. Video: British Council English Pronunciation 
  10. Video: English Pronunciation Training

image credit




The ARTICLES in English: Definite, Indefinite, Partitive, Zero, Negative, Demonstrative, Interrogative, Personal + QUIZ

The ARTICLES in English

The most common word in English is the article “the.” As in many languages, articles in English are very common and often essential to communicate with clarity. Articles are either definite or indefinite in the sense that they give you information about the nouns in a sentence and allow you to know with greater clarity and comprehension which person, place or thing is being talked about.

Below are the various types of articles you should acquaint yourself with if you want to perfect your English.

Definite Article in English

The definite article in English is “the“.

Use the definite article before a noun when you want to talk about that specific and particular place, person or thing.

For example:

  • The gym: I am going to the gym.
  • The man: The man sitting in front of me is filming me on his I-phone.
  • The book: The book is very interesting.

 II. You should also use the definite article in the following circumstances:

To refer to a place such as a mountain range, an ocean, a country with multiple states, principalities or islands, Cinema, Seas,  and certain organizations. In some instances, the “the” indicates that there is only one of that place, person or thing.

For example:

  • The Andes Mountains
  • The Maldives
  • The Caribbean
  • The Caribbean Sea
  • The North Sea
  • The West Indies
  • The principality of Monaco
  • The United Kingdom
  • The United States
  • The Atlantic Ocean
  • The Pacific Ocean
  • The Suez Canal
  • The Seine
  • The Thames
  • The French Alps
  • The United Nations
  • The World Bank
  • The North Atlantic Treaty Agreement
  • The Gem Cinemas
  • The White House
  • The president of the United State
  • The president of Mexico
  • The Netherlands
  • The Irish Republic
  • The South of France
  • The West
  • The sun
  • The moon
  • The sky
  • The environment
  • The Earth
  • The government of Tunisia
  • The Pentagon


Do you know the rules for using articles in English?

III. Do not use “the” in the following circumstances:

  • To refer to lakes such as Lake Michigan, Lake Ontario (but you would say the Great Lakes)
  • To refer to Streets, Avenues and Boulevards such as: Antebullum Street, Madison Boulevard and Jones Avenue (but you would say (the street, the avenue, the boulevard, the Champs Ellyseés)
  • To refer to Continents, States and Lakes  such as Africa, Michigan and Victoria
  • To refer to cities such as Paris, New York and Melbourne
  • To refer to countries such as Nigeria, France, and Brazil (unless the country is composed of several states, islands or is a principality of another.)
  • To refer to hills and mountains such as Everest and Kilamanjaro
  • To refer to roads, Streets, Squares and Parks such as Park Street, Union Square and Central Park
  • To refer to airports, theatres, shops, restaurants, cinemas, hotels and galleries.


Indefinite Article in English

The indefinite articles in English are “a” “an” “some” and “any”

(some and any are usually used with uncountable nouns. Any water, any money, some milk, some food. But they can also be used with countable nouns such as some friends, some grapes, some chocolates, some apples, any apples, any grapes, any books).

I. Use “a”  and “an” to refer to singular nouns that are not referring to a specific person, place or thing.

II. Note that “any” is usually used in a question or negative sentence.

For example:

  • A man: A man just walked out of Starbucks with a loaded gun.
  • A book: I would like to buy a book for a nine year old.
  • A gym: I have to join a gym otherwise I won’t be able to fit into my clothes.

II. Use some and any to refer to plural nouns. (Note that “any” is most often used with a negative or in the interrogative.)

  • Some food: I need to go to the supermarket to buy some food
  • any cheese: Is there any cheese left in the fridge?
  • any apples: Don’t we have any apples?

The Partitive Articles in English

The partitive articles are “some” “any” (you can also say “a lot of” or “a few”)

The partitive articles in English is used to parts of a whole. It refers to a quantity or part of a mass noun such as food, water, mud, air etc.

For example:

  • some tea: May I have some tea.
  • any bread: There isn’t any bread left in the bread bin.
  • some food: Have some food before you leave.
  • any air: There isn’t any air in this room.
  • any water: Do you have any water?
  • some mud: There is some mud over there. (you can drop “some” in this sentence – zero article)

 Zero Articles in English

I. Use zero article when you are generalizing people, places or things.


  • Asians are usually very good cooks.
  • Doctors are scary when they refuse to listen.
  • Mosques and Temples are holy places of worship so you should be respectful.
  • Mosquitoes are the devil’s children.

II. When you are talking about uncountable plural nouns and ideas.

For example:

  • I have () money in my cellar.
  • There is () water on the ground.
  • You have ()  mud on your boots
  • Do you have () cheese?

III. Abstract Nouns do not need an article.

For example:

  • Litigation: The case is proceeding to () litigation. (But, the litigation is proceeding)
  • Negotiation: () Negotiation is key to this transaction. (But, the negotiation was the key to the transaction)
  • Education: In Guam, () education is not as important as family connections.
  • Courage: () Courage and fortitude will see you though this ordeal.
  • Love: () Love is the answer.
  • Music: () Music lovers unanimously panned the album.
  • Peace: Without () peace there can be no justice.


III. You don’t need an article in front of the names of countries, lakes, streets, airports, metros, subways, universities, academic subjects, languages, churches, days of the week, sports, etc

For example:

  • () South Africa is truly spectacular.
  • The most beautiful lake in the world is () Lake Ontario.
  • () Bourbon Street is a major tourist attraction.
  • I like () football.
  • He worships at () St Peter’s Church.
  • My dream is to go to () Harvard University.
  • () History is a very boring subject.
  • I hate () Mondays!



Negative articles in English

The negative article in English is “no.”


  • No one can come into this room
  • No man is an island
  • No human has ever roamed these everglades
  • No city is prepared for such a disaster.
  • Under no circumstance will I allow that to happen in this organization.

The Demonstrative Article (pronoun or adjective) in English

The Demonstrative article in English is “this” “that” “these” and “those”


  • This situation is beyond the pale.
  • That situation was beyond the pale.
  • These emails are inappropriate in a business setting.
  • Those emails were inappropriate in a business setting.


Interrogative article (or pronoun) in English

The interrogative articles/pronouns in English are “which” “what” and “whose” “where” “when” and “how”.

These are called “determiners although in other languages such as french, they would be considered “articles.”

Interrogative articles interrogates the listener for information about a person, place or thing (nouns) and the answers to interrogative pronouns are somewhat “definite” and measurable. The key is in the noun that follows the adjective. (Note that other WH words such as “how” “where” and “when” are not considered as interrogative adjective because typically they are not followed by a noun.)

For example:

  • What color is your hair.
  • Which guy do you think is cutest?
  • Whose book is this?

(Not, how are you? When are you coming back? Where is the soda machine? (these are followed by linking verbs and not by a noun. Though they are interrogative pronouns, they are not really interrogative adjectives/articles.))

Possessive articles in English

The possessive articles/adjectives in English are “my,” “your,” “his,” “our,” “your,” and “their”


  • My dress is too tight because I have eaten too much.
  • Your hand is touching my derriere please remove it.
  • Our country is going through a crisis right now.
  • Their father is a billionaire.

image credit 



 Have you taken an English quiz lately to gauge how well your basic English is? No? Why not? You have to keep testing yourself! How else are you going to improve? Well, tell you what: I want to help you out so I created this little English quiz that is full of little basic grammar rules, for example:
  • Make vs do?
  • Say vs tell
  • the proper form to ask a question
  • ing vs infinitive
  • modal verbs
  • Did + main verb (question form)
  • Have (question form)
  • etc.

This little English quiz should not take more than 5 minutes to complete. Just click on the answer you think is right and hit next when you are done. At the end of the quiz, your score will appear at the top.

Good luck!



english text message abbreviations meaning

English Text Message Abbreviations: 20 Text Abbreviations Business People Can Use (Good for Emails too) With Meanings

A List of Text Message Abbreviations and their Meaning


But what about these new forms of communication? # English Text Message Abbreviations.   What do all these signs and symbols mean??

In many cases, your guess is as good as mine. And the worse part is, they keep coming up with new ones every day! So it is hard to keep up. But I have mined the Internet to get some clarity on a few abbreviations that I have seen in correspondences between business people. These English text message abbreviations would only be appropriate if you already know the recipient and you have a fairly informal business relationship.  I don’t think text message abbreviations should ever be used in a formal context or in a formal email. Nor should English text message abbreviations be used when you don’t know the recipient very well. As I said, these can also be used in emails.




  1. 4YEO = For your eyes only

This is used to tell the recipient that the message or document should not be read by anyone by him or her.  It is confidential

2. BTW = By the Way

This has no definitive meaning really. It is really idiomatic.  A way to give additional information. For example, you say “By the way, I sent you the powerpoint yesterday.”   This means that in addition to what I just said, you should know that I also sent you the powerpoint.

3. B/C = Because

Obviously, because is a subordinating conjunction in English used to connect two distinct clause. “I left because it was difficult to get paid afterwards.”  You can also say “I left because of the difficulty of getting paid afterwards.” This latter would be using because with a prepositional phrase. But it is still two distinct clauses.

4. ASAP = As soon as possible

ASAP is used to tell the recipient that time is of the essence.

5. F2F = Face to Face

This is used I imagine to ask for a face to face meeting or explain that something has or has to happen face to face.

6. CYT = See you tomorrow

This one is self explanatory.

7. FC = Fingers crossed

This means that you are hoping that a situation will work out for the best.

8. B2B = Business to Business

This means that products and services are from one business to the other and not to consumers which would be B2C

9. IMHO = In my humble opinion

This is another way of saying “according to me” but of course in English, you never say “according to me” instead you say “in my opinion” or “in my humble opinion.”

10. RSVP = Repondez vous s’il vous plait

This is used to ask the recipient to respond to an invitation with an acceptance or rejection.

11. TBC = To be continued

To be continued means that the matter is not finished, there is more to come.

12. WTF = What the fuck

This means, “what?!” but in a vulgar way. So it is better not to use it in a business context unless the recipient has already used it and you know it will be OK.

13. YAM = Yet another meeting

This means the writer is fed up with having to go to “yet another meeting.” And thinks the meetings are not even necessary or productive.

14. ICYMI = in case you missed it

This is a gossipy abbreviation that means “let me bring you up to speed on what has been going on while you were gone.”

15. TQ = Thank you

This is self explanatory. You can also say TY

16. TGIF = Thank god it’s Friday

This means the sender is really happy the weekend has arrived

17. FYI = For your information

This means here is some information you ought to have or to know.

18. TBA = to be announced

This means that there is pending information which will be sent out to all who are concerned once it is available.

19. HF = Have fun

This is self explanatory. It tells the recipient to “enjoy themselves and have a good time.”

20. EOD = End of discussion

This means “the end.”

# English text message abbreviations meaning

NEXT: How to Begin and End a Business Email in English

Image credit


 Speak Better: Fun ways to Improve your English

There are indeed many fun ways to improve your English and these are easy steps and strategies you can implement today. What could be more fun than celebrity gossip, for example? You may think that reading about Kim Kardashian is beneath your dignity but you would be surprised how much vocabulary you pick up from a news piece about the reality starlet that improves your fluency and helps you to sound more like a native English speaker.

Obviously, there are many other easy and fun ways to improve your English other than reading about Kim Kardashian. For example, do you like poetry? Do you like to use social media? Do you like American movies? All of these are ways that you can use and employ to help you to improve your English comprehension as well as your oral and written English skills.

Why is it important to find fun ways to improve your English? Because you will be encouraged to continue to study the language if you are having fun. It is quite that simple. There is no need to be bored out of your mind anymore. You can have fun with it, even if you are learning the language in a professional capacity.  Because professional people know about celebrities and professional people read poetry. And professional people do a lot of other things, like subscribe to social networks. All of these vehicles will help you improve your English skills.

But don’t take my word for it. Go through the slide show of easy and fun ways to improve your English and see if you find a method or strategy that could work for you. Then get to work and use it today!


NEXT: More tips on how to improve your English