Category Archives: ENGLISH GRAMMAR & VOCABULARY

For, Since, During, While: What is the Difference Between These English Puppies? + QUIZ

Use “For” when:

You are talking about a duration of time that is non-specific. For example:

“I lived there for five years.” In this sentence, the speaker does not specify which five years he or she is talking about. Is it from 2001 – 2006? Is it five years during his or her teens? Was it a five year period ten years ago?

Consider this other sentence: “The meeting lasted for six minutes.”

Again, the speaker does not give a specific time frame, only a duration.  The listener does not know specifically when those six minutes began and ended.

For, Since, During, While
When do I use “For” “During” “Since” or “While”???

You use “since” when you:

Want to specify the time frame that something started or began. That thing is likely still continuing in the present time.  Note that “since” is often used with the present perfect and present continuous tenses. Remember that in English, the present perfect tense/present perfect continuous is used to talk about something that started in the past but has a connection to the present. However, also note that since can be used in other contexts/tenses as well. Since can be either a conjunction, adverb or preposition in English. As Tiphaine Borredon would say, “it’s complication!”

Read the examples below. Note that in each example, the action began at a time in the past but it is understood that the action continues to the moment the speaker is speaking:

  • Since when have you been jogging at midnight? (adverb)
  • I have been jogging at midnight since last year. (preposition)
  • I have despised broccoli since I was a child.  (preposition)
  • Since you have refused to remove your car from the parking spot for disabled people, I have no choice but to call the police. (conjunction)
  • I have taken French lessons since the age of eighteen. (preposition)

You use “during” when you:

Are referring to a specific period of time that has a specific beginning point and a specific ending point. During is a preposition and is usually followed by a noun or a noun clause in English.

So for example:

“I will go sightseeing during my vacation.” In this sentence the speaker (and probably the listener) knows exactly when the vacation will begin and end.

HERE ARE SOME OTHER EXAMPLES OF “DURING”:

  • “I cry during sad movies.”
  • “I learned to cheat on tests during college.”
  • During the summer, I often go to Bretagne to visit my grandmother.
  • Are you free during lunch?
  • I have observed that during fire drills Peter goes into an asthma attack.
  • Come on, let’s go! You can eat during the car ride.
  • You will have a chance to see the Great Wall during the tour tomorrow.

You use “while” when you:

Talk about two actions that occur during the same span of time.  The two actions may be unrelated but they occur or will occur in the same time frame.  This use of while is as a conjunction. But “while” has many uses in English. It can be a conjunction, adverb, noun, verb or even sometimes a preposition! (Tiphaine! Complication!)

CHECK OUT THESE EXAMPLES:

  • While you take a nap, I will cook dinner. (conjunction)
  • You can go for a walk while she is being interviewed. (conjunction)
  • Did you pass out while all of this was going on? (conjunction)
  • While John is prone to outbursts, Jason his twin brother is very calm. (conjunction)
  • My college years were a time for me to while away my youth (verb)
  • The hour while you wait for the doctor to update you is the hardest part of this medical procedure (adverb)
  • We can sit here for a while. (noun)

Note that “while” and “during” can often be used in the same sense but the structure of your sentence would change. For example:

  • While you take a nap, I will cook dinner.
  • During your nap, I will cook dinner.
  • You can go for a walk while she is being interviewed
  • You can go for a walk during her interview.
  • Did you  pass out while all of this was going on?
  • Did you pass out during all of this?

 

NOW TAKE THE QUIZ!

Read more on Since, While, For and During here.

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THEY’RE or THERE or THEIR? A QUIZ.

They're or There?

THEY’RE or THERE? OR THEIR? Even for native English speakers, it can sometimes be difficult to choose between these three words. What is the difference between these three words (homophones) which are pronounced exactly the same?  When speaking, there is no difference and no need to worry but when writing you definitely want to choose the right one because there is a huge difference between them.

“Their” is a possessive adjective that signifies ownership, belonging or association. It is usually followed by a noun. For example:

  • Their house
  • Their children
  • Their car
  • Their mistake
  • Their thoughts

“There” is an adverb of place or it can be a pronoun depending on how it is used in the sentence For example as a pronoun:

  • There is a book on the table
  • There are plenty left
  • There can’t be this many obstructionists in this organization!
  • There must be a way

As for usage of “there” as an adverb often when speaking about a location or place:

  • I will not go there.
  • The forest is over there
  • Put it there
  • Take the road through there

Finally, “they’re” is a contraction or shortened form of “they are.” Examples of its usage are:

  • I am not sure if they’re coming
  • They’re late again
  • They’re an item
  • They’re two of the highest mountains in the world.
  • Do you know if they’re the right ones?

Are you ready to quiz yourself on THEY’RE or THERE or THEIR?

CLICK START.

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ARTICLES IN ENGLISH

The ARTICLES in English: Definite, Indefinite, Partitive, Zero, Negative, Demonstrative, Interrogative, Personal + QUIZ

The ARTICLES in English

The most common word in English is the article “the.” As in many languages, articles in English are very common and often essential to communicate with clarity. Articles are either definite or indefinite in the sense that they give you information about the nouns in a sentence and allow you to know with greater clarity and comprehension which person, place or thing is being talked about.

Below are the various types of articles you should acquaint yourself with if you want to perfect your English.

Definite Article in English

The definite article in English is “the“.

Use the definite article before a noun when you want to talk about that specific and particular place, person or thing.

For example:

  • The gym: I am going to the gym.
  • The man: The man sitting in front of me is filming me on his I-phone.
  • The book: The book is very interesting.

 II. You should also use the definite article in the following circumstances:

To refer to a place such as a mountain range, an ocean, a country with multiple states, principalities or islands, Cinema, Seas,  and certain organizations. In some instances, the “the” indicates that there is only one of that place, person or thing.

For example:

  • The Andes Mountains
  • The Maldives
  • The Caribbean
  • The Caribbean Sea
  • The North Sea
  • The West Indies
  • The principality of Monaco
  • The United Kingdom
  • The United States
  • The Atlantic Ocean
  • The Pacific Ocean
  • The Suez Canal
  • The Seine
  • The Thames
  • The French Alps
  • The United Nations
  • The World Bank
  • The North Atlantic Treaty Agreement
  • The Gem Cinemas
  • The White House
  • The president of the United State
  • The president of Mexico
  • The Netherlands
  • The Irish Republic
  • The South of France
  • The West
  • The sun
  • The moon
  • The sky
  • The environment
  • The Earth
  • The government of Tunisia
  • The Pentagon

 

ARTICLES IN ENGLISH
Do you know the rules for using articles in English?

III. Do not use “the” in the following circumstances:

  • To refer to lakes such as Lake Michigan, Lake Ontario (but you would say the Great Lakes)
  • To refer to Streets, Avenues and Boulevards such as: Antebullum Street, Madison Boulevard and Jones Avenue (but you would say (the street, the avenue, the boulevard, the Champs Ellyseés)
  • To refer to Continents, States and Lakes  such as Africa, Michigan and Victoria
  • To refer to cities such as Paris, New York and Melbourne
  • To refer to countries such as Nigeria, France, and Brazil (unless the country is composed of several states, islands or is a principality of another.)
  • To refer to hills and mountains such as Everest and Kilamanjaro
  • To refer to roads, Streets, Squares and Parks such as Park Street, Union Square and Central Park
  • To refer to airports, theatres, shops, restaurants, cinemas, hotels and galleries.

 

Indefinite Article in English

The indefinite articles in English are “a” “an” “some” and “any”

(some and any are usually used with uncountable nouns. Any water, any money, some milk, some food. But they can also be used with countable nouns such as some friends, some grapes, some chocolates, some apples, any apples, any grapes, any books).

I. Use “a”  and “an” to refer to singular nouns that are not referring to a specific person, place or thing.

II. Note that “any” is usually used in a question or negative sentence.

For example:

  • A man: A man just walked out of Starbucks with a loaded gun.
  • A book: I would like to buy a book for a nine year old.
  • A gym: I have to join a gym otherwise I won’t be able to fit into my clothes.

II. Use some and any to refer to plural nouns. (Note that “any” is most often used with a negative or in the interrogative.)

  • Some food: I need to go to the supermarket to buy some food
  • any cheese: Is there any cheese left in the fridge?
  • any apples: Don’t we have any apples?

The Partitive Articles in English

The partitive articles are “some” “any” (you can also say “a lot of” or “a few”)

The partitive articles in English is used to parts of a whole. It refers to a quantity or part of a mass noun such as food, water, mud, air etc.

For example:

  • some tea: May I have some tea.
  • any bread: There isn’t any bread left in the bread bin.
  • some food: Have some food before you leave.
  • any air: There isn’t any air in this room.
  • any water: Do you have any water?
  • some mud: There is some mud over there. (you can drop “some” in this sentence – zero article)

 Zero Articles in English

I. Use zero article when you are generalizing people, places or things.

Examples:

  • Asians are usually very good cooks.
  • Doctors are scary when they refuse to listen.
  • Mosques and Temples are holy places of worship so you should be respectful.
  • Mosquitoes are the devil’s children.

II. When you are talking about uncountable plural nouns and ideas.

For example:

  • I have () money in my cellar.
  • There is () water on the ground.
  • You have ()  mud on your boots
  • Do you have () cheese?

III. Abstract Nouns do not need an article.

For example:

  • Litigation: The case is proceeding to () litigation. (But, the litigation is proceeding)
  • Negotiation: () Negotiation is key to this transaction. (But, the negotiation was the key to the transaction)
  • Education: In Guam, () education is not as important as family connections.
  • Courage: () Courage and fortitude will see you though this ordeal.
  • Love: () Love is the answer.
  • Music: () Music lovers unanimously panned the album.
  • Peace: Without () peace there can be no justice.

 

III. You don’t need an article in front of the names of countries, lakes, streets, airports, metros, subways, universities, academic subjects, languages, churches, days of the week, sports, etc

For example:

  • () South Africa is truly spectacular.
  • The most beautiful lake in the world is () Lake Ontario.
  • () Bourbon Street is a major tourist attraction.
  • I like () football.
  • He worships at () St Peter’s Church.
  • My dream is to go to () Harvard University.
  • () History is a very boring subject.
  • I hate () Mondays!

 


 

Negative articles in English

The negative article in English is “no.”

Examples

  • No one can come into this room
  • No man is an island
  • No human has ever roamed these everglades
  • No city is prepared for such a disaster.
  • Under no circumstance will I allow that to happen in this organization.

The Demonstrative Article (pronoun or adjective) in English

The Demonstrative article in English is “this” “that” “these” and “those”

Examples:

  • This situation is beyond the pale.
  • That situation was beyond the pale.
  • These emails are inappropriate in a business setting.
  • Those emails were inappropriate in a business setting.

 

Interrogative article (or pronoun) in English

The interrogative articles/pronouns in English are “which” “what” and “whose” “where” “when” and “how”.

These are called “determiners although in other languages such as french, they would be considered “articles.”

Interrogative articles interrogates the listener for information about a person, place or thing (nouns) and the answers to interrogative pronouns are somewhat “definite” and measurable. The key is in the noun that follows the adjective. (Note that other WH words such as “how” “where” and “when” are not considered as interrogative adjective because typically they are not followed by a noun.)

For example:

  • What color is your hair.
  • Which guy do you think is cutest?
  • Whose book is this?

(Not, how are you? When are you coming back? Where is the soda machine? (these are followed by linking verbs and not by a noun. Though they are interrogative pronouns, they are not really interrogative adjectives/articles.))


Possessive articles in English

The possessive articles/adjectives in English are “my,” “your,” “his,” “our,” “your,” and “their”

Examples:

  • My dress is too tight because I have eaten too much.
  • Your hand is touching my derriere please remove it.
  • Our country is going through a crisis right now.
  • Their father is a billionaire.

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Prepositions of Time and Place: in, at, on.

PREPOSITIONS OF TIME AND PLACE

IN, AT, ON

Prepositions of time and place can create havoc for English learners.

In this post, we will try to help you to choose the right preposition when you speak and write.

IN

Use “in” to talk about time that is somewhat specific but not totally precise. That means, it tells you how much time (or how many units of time) something takes or will take, but not exactly when the time begins to count.

“In” often goes with a numeral/number followed by a time counter such as seconds, minutes, hours, days, weeks, months, years, centuries.

For Example

  • in five minutes
  • in the afternoon
  • in six weeks
  • in two years
  • in a minute
  • in 8 hours
  • in a second
  • in two seconds
  • in a while
  • in four days
  • in 2 centuries
For references to place you would use “in” to a place that is somewhat specific though not necessarily totally precise. That is to say, you may not necessarily know exactly which one the speaker means but you may have a ballpark idea.

For example:

  • in the bathroom
  • in the kitchen
  • in the classroom
  • in the house
  • in the airplane
  • in the discotheque
  • in/at her office
  • in the car
  • in the cupboard
  • in the bowl

 

AT

Use “at” when you know precisely when something begins, began, or will begin.

For example:

  • at 6:00 a.m.
  • at midday
  • at 5 o’clock
  • at dinnertime
  • at Christmas time
  • at 2 o’clock tomorrow morning
  • at 11 o’clock last night
  • at noon
  • at midnight
  • at midday
  • at dawn
  • at dusk
  • at sundown
  • at the crack of dawn
  • at first light
For references to place, use at to refer to specific locations and the listener to whom you are speaking often knows precisely which one you mean.

For example:

  • at the corner
  • at the deli
  • at the supermarket
  • at school
  • at home
  • at the pharmacy
  • at work
  • at the beach

 

ON

Use “on” to refer to specific days in English.

For example:

  • on Sundays
  • On Mondays
  • On New Years Eve
  • On Christmas Day
  • On Friday
  • on my birthday
  • on your birthday
  • on Thanksgiving Day
  • on the Fourth of July
  • on Halloween
  • On Easter Sunday
For references to place, use “on” to refer to something or someone being to top of a specific surface.
  • on the waterslide
  • on the table
  • on the kitchen counter
  • on the desk
  • on/in the bus
  • on the roof
  • on the Internet
  • on the computer screen
  • on TV
  • on the TV

 

 

6 English Verb Tenses with their FRENCH equivalent: Which tense corresponds to which?

 

  1. The SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE in English corresponds to the SIMPLE PRESENT in French. This is a tense used to state facts or habits.
  • I have a cat. (English)
  • J’ai un chat. (French)

 

2. The SIMPLE PAST in English corresponds to the PASSE COMPOSE in French (but note that it is constructed like the present perfect in English!) The action is definitively in the past.

  • I ran to school.
  • J’ai couru a l’école. ( Note that “I have run to school” would be the literal translation in English and this is present perfect in English using “to have” and the past participle.)

 

3. The PRESENT PERFECT in English corresponds to the IMPARFAIT in French. This action started in the past but continues more than likely in the present or has a connection to the present conversation.

  • I have eaten.
  • Je mangeais.

 

4. The SIMPLE PAST corresponds to the PASSE SIMPLE (as well as the passé composé) in French but  the passé simple in French only when writing formally about history or literature, etc,  and English does not have any tense to distinguish between formal past events and informal past events. So, in English, when talking about an action in the past you will use either the simple past, the past continuous or (one of the past perfect tenses) depending on what you mean.

 

5. The SIMPLE FUTURE in English corresponds to the FUTUR SIMPLE in French.

  • I will go there. (English)
  • J’y irai.
  • Je vais y aller.

 

6. The PAST PERFECT  in English corresponds to the PLUS QUE PARFAIT.

  • I had made it for my brother.
  • J’avais le fait pour mon frère.

 

 

 

The Passive Voice in English: When Should You Use It?

In English you use the passive voice when you want to be vague, noncommittal, inexact, deceptive, pretentious and wordy. That is why lawyers tend to love this tense. That is not to say that lawyers are vague, noncommittal, inexact, deceptive, pretentious or wordy. It would be a bit unfair to say it is only lawyers who can be like that.

The fact is, almost anyone may need to be one or more of those adjectives under various circumstances and they would therefore need to employ the passive voice.

NOTE THE FOLLOWING ABOUT THE PASSIVE VOICE IN ENGLISH:

  • With the passive voice, you may not know who commits the act, only that the act was committed. (Example: The book was taken.)
  • With the passive voice, you will always need the verb “to be” and sometimes you also need the verb “to have.”
  • Almost any verb tense in English can be changed to the passive construction including the conditional perfect using “would.”
  • Typically, with the passive voice, you sentence will end with “by someone” or “by something.” However, often, you can leave off the “by” clause and it will still be understood even though not expressly stated.
  • With the passive voice, the object becomes the subject in the passive construction.
  • With the passive voice, you have to add “being” to all continuous passive tenses.
  • For some tenses and verbs, the passive voice is very awkward and you should avoid using it and use the active voice instead.

BELOW, FIND AN EXAMPLE OF THE BASIC PASSIVE TENSES IN ENGLISH:

 

ACTIVE VOICE PRESENT TENSE:

The woman holds her son lovingly.

PASSIVE VOICE PRESENT TENSE:

The son is held lovingly by the woman.

 

ACTIVE VOICE PRESENT CONTINUOUS

The lightening is striking my car!

PASSIVE VOICE PRESENT CONTINUOUS

My car is being struck by the lightening!

 

ACTIVE VOICE SIMPLE PAST 

The chef cooked the meal

PASSIVE VOICE SIMPLE PAST

The meal was cooked by the chef.

 

ACTIVE VOICE PAST CONTINUOUS

The seamstress was dressing the bride when the zipper popped.

PASSIVE VOICE PAST CONTINUOUS

The bride was being dressed by the seamstress when the zipper popped.

 

ACTIVE VOICE PAST PERFECT

If he had known, he would not have pulled the trigger.

PASSIVE VOICE PAST PERFECT

The trigger would not have been pulled if he had known.

 

ACTIVE VOICE PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS

The president had been planning to ban immigrants for many years even before he was elected.

PASSIVE VOICE PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS

Banning immigrants had been being planned by the president for years, even before he was  elected

 

ACTIVE VOICE PRESENT PERFECT

The school has put on a theatrical performance for the last fifteen years.

PASSIVE VOICE PRESENT PERFECT

A theatrical performance has been put on by the school for the last fifteen years.

 

ACTIVE VOICE PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS

Jane and her husband have been demolishing their home for the last two months.

PASSIVE VOICE PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS

For the last two months, the home has been being demolished by Jane and her husband.

 

ACTIVE VOICE FUTURE SIMPLE

Geanne will drive me to the airport tomorrow.

Geanne is going to drive me to the airport tomorrow.

 

PASSIVE VOICE FUTURE SIMPLE

I will be driven to the airport tomorrow by Geanne.

I am going to be driven to the airport tomorrow by Geanne.

 

 

 

 

 

Some Common English idioms you should know

This post contains some common English Idioms You Should Know

Whether you are taking Legal English or Business English courses, it is helpful to learn at least a few English idioms so that you can at least up your “cool index” when you speak with your American colleagues. These idioms are not legal idioms or business idioms. We will look at those in another post. These are just idioms for socializing, chatting and shooting the breeze. (shooting the breeze is an idiom that means relaxed banter and chatter.) Americans particularly appreciate people who are “cool” and “with it.”  Is “with it” an idiom? Arguably, yes. Idioms don’t have to be full on sentences. They can be just a couple of words that strung together have an identifiable meaning. In English, to be “with it” means to be plugged in; to be cool; to know what is going on.

You will find idioms all over the English language, in law, in business, in play, in sports, in crime as well. For example, when you ‘take a contract out on someone” it means you plot to kill the person. When you “blow a deal” it means you caused negotiations to break down within the context of a contract that would otherwise have been good for you. When you “cave in” it has all sorts of meanings. In sports it may mean you lose your confidence; in dating it may mean you “give in” to someone’s desires; in life it could mean you let the stress of something get to you. In negotiations it could mean you let the other side get their way, you give in to their unreasonable demands because it was just easier.

So, how many English idioms do you know? Probably more than you realize. Americans use a lot of idioms in their everyday speech. If you want too interact with Americans, you should try to memorize a few of their idioms. What is cooler than a ‘”foreigner” with a charming accent using American idioms in their communications with Americans?

Oh, wait. First I should have first defined idiom. What is an idiom? Hah. An idiom is a just a quirky thing people say within a “culture” that has a specific meaning to that culture. It is a group of words strung together to create a semantic unit that means something specific to the people within that culture. It is not a phrasal verb. Even though phrasal verbs are also quirky and culturally sensitive in terms of what they mean. Idioms are usually full fledged sentences but not always. As mentioned earlier, just a couple of words can form an idiom.  Basically all languages have idioms.

So for example: it is raining cats and dogs.”Raining cats and dogs” is an idiom. The words are strung together to create a semantic unit that has a meaning separate and distinct from the words taken individually in a different context. Moreover, it cannot “rain” cats and dogs in a literal sense.  idioms have this nuance of being slightly unreal; or maybe the better word is idioms cannot be taken “literally.” So when you say in English that someone has “kicked the bucket” that means the person has died. It is possible to “kick” a “bucket” but kicking a bucket has nothing to do with dying except insofar as in English, it takes an idiomatic meaning. There are no rules for these things. You have to just memorize them.

 

Here are 10 English-American idioms. Do you know what they mean? Match them if you can:

1. On the other hand                                                                                        a. pouring

2.  To come up with                                                                                           b. rendered speechless

3. Piece of cake                                                                                                   c. however

4. raining cats and dogs                                                                                    d. old

5. bite off more than you can chew                                                                 e. to find; to figure something out

6. Over the hill                                                                                                     f. out of place

7. Straight from the horse’s mouth                                                                  g. unable to see

8. Cat got your tongue                                                                                        h.nervous

9. butterflies in your stomach                                                                           i. over-extended

10. Scared as a mouse                                                                                         j. Easy

11. Blind as a bat                                                                                                   k. terrified

12 Fish out of water                                                                                              l. direct

Conditional Sentences in English Using “If” Clauses: First, Second, Third Conditionals Plus Examples

CONDITIONAL SENTENCES IN ENGLISH: First Conditional, Second Conditional, Third Conditional 

 

FIRST CONDITIONAL

First Conditional sentences have two (or more) clauses that are related to one another. It talks about something that is very likely to happen if another thing happens.

  • One part of the sentence begins with “if”.
  • The “if” clause is in the simple present tense.
  • The “if” appear either at the beginning or at the end.
  • The second clause, or part of the sentence, is directly related to the “if clause” and is in the future tense.

EXAMPLES:

I will be excited if you are exciting.

If you are exciting I will be excited.

 

If I hurry, I will catch the bus.

I will catch the bus if I hurry.


SECOND CONDITIONAL

Second Conditional sentences have two (or more) clauses that are related to one another. It talks about something that is NOT very likely to happen (although the speaker wishes that it would happen).

  • The “if” clause uses the simple past tense.
  • The second clause uses the conditional modal “would”
  • The “if” appear either at the beginning or at the end.

The second clause, or part of the sentence, is directly related to the “if clause” but only to explain why the if clause is unlikely.

EXAMPLES

If I ate fewer carbs, I would be thinner.

I would be thinner if I ate fewer carbs.

 

If you studied harder you would do well.

You would do well if you studied harder.

 

 

THIRD CONDITIONAL

Third Conditional sentences have two (or more) clauses that are related to one another. It talks about something that is impossible because the opposite has probably already occurred. It is like a counterfactual.

  • The “if” clause uses the PAST PERFECT
  • The second clause uses the conditional perfect “would have”
  • The “if” appear either at the beginning or at the end.

EXAMPLES:

If I had known, I would not have said yes.

I would not have said yes if I had known.

 

If the surgery had worked, she would have been gorgeous.

She would have been gorgeous if the surgery had worked.

Signal Words – Cause and Effect: English Vocabulary Words & Phrases to Explain what happened and why/how it happened

SIGNAL WORDS THAT EXPLAIN CAUSE & EFFECT IN ENGLISH

When you think of cause & effect, think two WH words WHAT (the effect/the reason something happened or the result of something happening) and WHY/HOW (cause/why or how something happened).

In English there are many words such as adverbs and adverbials that can be used to express cause & effect.

In English, it is possible to put the cause before the effect; and it is also possible to put the effect before the cause. However, depending on the way you phrase your sentence, you may have to change the adverb or adverbial you use

Signal words help to connect your ideas and show a relationship between ideas and concepts in your sentences – explaining what happened and why/how it happened.

Signal words can also help to make your speech, and your writing clearer for the listener and reader.

Examples:

 

Because I was late, I lost my place on the queue. (Why/cause before what/effect)

I lost my place on the queue because I was late. (what/effect before why/cause)

 

OR

The medical trials were a disaster; as a result the company discontinued the medication. (why/cause before what/effect)

As a result of the disastrous medical trials, the company discontinued the medication. (why/cause before what/effect)

 

OR

Since you refuse to honor your contractual obligations, my client has decided to commence a lawsuit (why/cause before what/effect)

My client has decided to commence a lawsuit because you refuse to honor your contractual obligations (what/effect before why/effect)

Below are other cause and effect vocabulary you can use.

CAUSE (WHY/HOW)

  • For (I did not go to the gym for I am tired)
  • Since (Since he is untrustworthy, I think we should avoid telling him confidential information)
  • Because (He will marry you because he loves you)
  • As (As it is late, I have to leave)
  • So long as (So long as I have life, I will continue to exercise)
  • As long as (As long as Trump is President, Jennifer plans to remain in Prague)
  • Now that (Now that it’s winter, I am happy.)

 

EFFECT (WHAT)

  • As a result (She failed the bar; as a result she cannot practice law in her state)
  • This led to (The refugees were denied food and shelter; this led to several deaths)
  • On account of that (The boss thought George was incompetent; on account of that, he fired him.)
  • Due to that (It poured for days. Due to that, the entire city is flooded)
  • For this reason (I am not Jewish. For this reason I do not go to synagogue.)
  • Consequently (He broke the rules. Consequently, he has been suspended from school for two months.)
  • As a consequence (She is very beautiful. As a consequence she has had everything handed to her.)
  • Therefore (It is way past my bedtime. Therefore, I am going to bed)
  • Thus (The government is oblivious thus it is up to voters to take action.)
  • So (He beat his wife so she left him.)
  • If…then (If you come with me to Ipanema, then I will go with you to Somalia.)
  • resulted in (The plane was accidentally not fueled in Dubai. This resulted in a crash in the South Atlantic.)

CLICK HERE TO GET AUDIO ANSWERS TO THE QUIZ BELOW  :    

 

SELECT THE RIGHT LINKING WORDS SHOWING CAUSE AND EFFECT FROM THE CHOICES GIVEN

1. I was drinking ______________ I was tipsy
A. Since
B. Because
C. So

2. ________________ I was drinking, I decided not to drive.
A. So
B. As
C. If

3. ______________ I had been drinking, my friend took my keys
A. Being that
B. As a result
C. For this reason

4. Jane is a mean lawyer. ________________, her client fired her and sought new counsel.
A. As a consequence
B. Consequently
C. This led to

5. You can practice law _______________ you are admitted to the bar.
A. Therefore
B. So long as
C. For this reason

6. I do not share your views ______________ I am not going to support you.
A. Thanks to
B. Owing to
C. Therefore

7. _____________ the mistake, I lost a lot of money in the stock market last year.
A. For this reason
B. Owing to
C. Since

8. ______________ the detective, we found my bag.
A. Thanks to
B. So
C. Because

9. The woman shoplifted the diamond necklace. This ___________ her arrest.
A. Led to
B. Thanks to
C. Due to

10. I object to being told by you what to say ____________ the fact that I know my own mind better than you do.
A. Due to
B. As long as
C. Since

11. The business partners had a major dispute and _____________ one of them decided to sue.
A. This Led to
B. Thus
C. Because

12. _____________ I am a millionaire, I have become very frugal.
A. Since
B. Now that
C. Due to

 


 

PARIS: Formation Rédiger des Contrat en Anglais, VOCABULAIRE – Essential English Contracts Vocabulary

Formation Rédiger des Contrat en Anglais, Paris – Essential English Contract Vocabulary

Avant que vous rédigez des contrat en anglais, vous devez connaître le vocabulaire des contrats en anglais. Les expressions suivant sont des vocabulaires basique pour rédiger des contrats en anglais.

 

Est ce que vous connaissez ces mots?

 

  1. Agreement
  2. Offer
  3. Acceptance
  4. Consideration
  5. Article
  6. Clause
  7. Breach
  8. Negotiation
  9. Meeting of the Minds
  10. Parties
  11. Assignment
  12. Multi-lateral
  13. Force majeure
  14. Multi-party
  15. Specific Performance
  16. Compensation
  17. Damages
  18. Terms
  19. Binding
  20. Redress
  21. Revocation
  22. Stipulation
  23. Arbitration
  24. Dispute resolution
  25. Undue Influence
  26. Fraud
  27. Enforceable
  28. Mistake
  29. Unilateral Contract
  30. Unilateral Mistake

 

TROUVEZ UNE LISTE COMPREHENSIVE DES TERMES ET VOCABULAIRES POUR REDACTION DES CONTRATS EN ANGALAIS A CE LIEN.

 

ELG Consulting vous offrez des formation des contrat en anglais. Nos formations sont des cours intensif chez votre bureau à Paris ou les endroits proche. Normalement, ces formation sont durée 20 heures est sont mené par un avocate américaine. Nous pouvons adapté la programme en fonction de votre domaine principale et votre but. Nos formation rédiger des contras en anglais sont bien formulée pour les avocats, juristes, hommes des affaires, dirigeants et salariées.


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